It is guilty of Blood and cannot stand as it now is but will come so near desolation as to hang as it were by a single hair!!!!!
hang by a thread
A mighty army!!!!!! And this is the redemption of Zion when the saints shall have redeemed that government and reinstated it in all its purity and glory!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I believe this is about the language as nearly as I can recollect it. Jedediah M. When the Constitution shall be tottering we shall be the people to save it from the hand of the foe.
On various occasions, Joseph Smith referred to the Constitution, the country, and destiny of the nation; and there is clear evidence that he anticipated future peril. Furthermore, he pronounced the prophecy at various times and places. Thread t is added to the wait set of object m , and performs n unlock actions on m. Thread t does not execute any further instructions until it has been removed from m 's wait set. The thread may be removed from the wait set due to any one of the following actions, and will resume sometime afterward:.
A notify action being performed on m in which t is selected for removal from the wait set. A notifyAll action being performed on m.
An interrupt action being performed on t. If this is a timed wait, an internal action removing t from m 's wait set that occurs after at least millisecs milliseconds plus nanosecs nanoseconds elapse since the beginning of this wait action. An internal action by the implementation. Implementations are permitted, although not encouraged, to perform "spurious wake-ups", that is, to remove threads from wait sets and thus enable resumption without explicit instructions to do so.
Notice that this provision necessitates the Java coding practice of using wait only within loops that terminate only when some logical condition that the thread is waiting for holds. Each thread must determine an order over the events that could cause it to be removed from a wait set. That order does not have to be consistent with other orderings, but the thread must behave as though those events occurred in that order. For example, if a thread t is in the wait set for m , and then both an interrupt of t and a notification of m occur, there must be an order over these events.
If the interrupt is deemed to have occurred first, then t will eventually return from wait by throwing InterruptedException , and some other thread in the wait set for m if any exist at the time of the notification must receive the notification. If the notification is deemed to have occurred first, then t will eventually return normally from wait with an interrupt still pending. Thread t performs n lock actions on m. If thread t was removed from m 's wait set in step 2 due to an interrupt, then t 's interruption status is set to false and the wait method throws InterruptedException.
Notification actions occur upon invocation of methods notify and notifyAll. Let thread t be the thread executing either of these methods on object m , and let n be the number of lock actions by t on m that have not been matched by unlock actions. If n is zero, then an IllegalMonitorStateException is thrown. This is the case where thread t does not already possess the lock for target m.
If n is greater than zero and this is a notify action, then if m 's wait set is not empty, a thread u that is a member of m 's current wait set is selected and removed from the wait set. There is no guarantee about which thread in the wait set is selected.
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This removal from the wait set enables u 's resumption in a wait action. Notice, however, that u 's lock actions upon resumption cannot succeed until some time after t fully unlocks the monitor for m.
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If n is greater than zero and this is a notifyAll action, then all threads are removed from m 's wait set, and thus resume. Notice, however, that only one of them at a time will lock the monitor required during the resumption of wait. Interruption actions occur upon invocation of Thread. Let t be the thread invoking u. This action causes u 's interruption status to be set to true. Additionally, if there exists some object m whose wait set contains u , then u is removed from m 's wait set.
This enables u to resume in a wait action, in which case this wait will, after re-locking m 's monitor, throw InterruptedException. Invocations of Thread. The static method Thread. The above specifications allow us to determine several properties having to do with the interaction of waits, notification, and interruption.
If a thread is both notified and interrupted while waiting, it may either:. The thread may not reset its interrupt status and return normally from the call to wait. Similarly, notifications cannot be lost due to interrupts. Assume that a set s of threads is in the wait set of an object m , and another thread performs a notify on m. Then either:. Note that if a thread is both interrupted and woken via notify , and that thread returns from wait by throwing an InterruptedException , then some other thread in the wait set must be notified. The thread does not lose ownership of any monitors, and resumption of execution will depend on scheduling and the availability of processors on which to execute the thread.
It is important to note that neither Thread.
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In particular, the compiler does not have to flush writes cached in registers out to shared memory before a call to Thread. For example, in the following broken code fragment, assume that this. The compiler is free to read the field this. This would mean that the loop would never terminate, even if another thread changed the value of this. A memory model describes, given a program and an execution trace of that program, whether the execution trace is a legal execution of the program. The Java programming language memory model works by examining each read in an execution trace and checking that the write observed by that read is valid according to certain rules.
The memory model describes possible behaviors of a program. An implementation is free to produce any code it likes, as long as all resulting executions of a program produce a result that can be predicted by the memory model.
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This provides a great deal of freedom for the implementor to perform a myriad of code transformations, including the reordering of actions and removal of unnecessary synchronization. The semantics of the Java programming language allow compilers and microprocessors to perform optimizations that can interact with incorrectly synchronized code in ways that can produce behaviors that seem paradoxical. Here are some examples of how incorrectly synchronized programs may exhibit surprising behaviors. This program uses local variables r1 and r2 and shared variables A and B.
Surprising results caused by statement reordering - original code.
Intuitively, either instruction 1 or instruction 3 should come first in an execution. If instruction 1 comes first, it should not be able to see the write at instruction 4. If instruction 3 comes first, it should not be able to see the write at instruction 2. If some execution exhibited this behavior, then we would know that instruction 4 came before instruction 1, which came before instruction 2, which came before instruction 3, which came before instruction 4. This is, on the face of it, absurd. However, compilers are allowed to reorder the instructions in either thread, when this does not affect the execution of that thread in isolation.
Surprising results caused by statement reordering - valid compiler transformation. To some programmers, this behavior may seem "broken". However, it should be noted that this code is improperly synchronized:. When code contains a data race, counterintuitive results are often possible. In addition, the memory hierarchy of the architecture on which a Java Virtual Machine implementation is run may make it appear as if code is being reordered.
In this chapter, we shall refer to anything that can reorder code as a compiler. This program is also incorrectly synchronized; it writes to shared memory without enforcing any ordering between those writes.
One common compiler optimization involves having the value read for r2 reused for r5 : they are both reads of r1. Now consider the case where the assignment to r6. If the compiler decides to reuse the value of r2 for the r5 , then r2 and r5 will have the value 0 , and r4 will have the value 3. From the perspective of the programmer, the value stored at p. The memory model determines what values can be read at every point in the program. The actions of each thread in isolation must behave as governed by the semantics of that thread, with the exception that the values seen by each read are determined by the memory model.
When we refer to this, we say that the program obeys intra-thread semantics. Intra-thread semantics are the semantics for single-threaded programs, and allow the complete prediction of the behavior of a thread based on the values seen by read actions within the thread. To determine if the actions of thread t in an execution are legal, we simply evaluate the implementation of thread t as it would be performed in a single-threaded context, as defined in the rest of this specification. Each time the evaluation of thread t generates an inter-thread action, it must match the inter-thread action a of t that comes next in program order.
If a is a read, then further evaluation of t uses the value seen by a as determined by the memory model.
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The memory model specified herein is not fundamentally based in the object-oriented nature of the Java programming language. For conciseness and simplicity in our examples, we often exhibit code fragments without class or method definitions, or explicit dereferencing. Most examples consist of two or more threads containing statements with access to local variables, shared global variables, or instance fields of an object.
We typically use variables names such as r1 or r2 to indicate variables local to a method or thread. Such variables are not accessible by other threads. Memory that can be shared between threads is called shared memory or heap memory. All instance fields, static fields, and array elements are stored in heap memory. In this chapter, we use the term variable to refer to both fields and array elements.
Two accesses to reads of or writes to the same variable are said to be conflicting if at least one of the accesses is a write. An inter-thread action is an action performed by one thread that can be detected or directly influenced by another thread. There are several kinds of inter-thread action that a program may perform:.
Read normal, or non-volatile.